- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
An open-source software tool for the generation of relaxation time maps in magnetic resonance imaging
© Messroghli et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
- Received: 1 April 2010
- Accepted: 30 July 2010
- Published: 30 July 2010
In magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times represent characteristic tissue properties that can be quantified with the help of specific imaging strategies. While there are basic software tools for specific pulse sequences, until now there is no universal software program available to automate pixel-wise mapping of relaxation times from various types of images or MR systems. Such a software program would allow researchers to test and compare new imaging strategies and thus would significantly facilitate research in the area of quantitative tissue characterization.
After defining requirements for a universal MR mapping tool, a software program named MRmap was created using a high-level graphics language. Additional features include a manual registration tool for source images with motion artifacts and a tabular DICOM viewer to examine pulse sequence parameters. MRmap was successfully tested on three different computer platforms with image data from three different MR system manufacturers and five different sorts of pulse sequences: multi-image inversion recovery T1; Look-Locker/TOMROP T1; modified Look-Locker (MOLLI) T1; single-echo T2/T2*; and multi-echo T2/T2*. Computing times varied between 2 and 113 seconds. Estimates of relaxation times compared favorably to those obtained from non-automated curve fitting. Completed maps were exported in DICOM format and could be read in standard software packages used for analysis of clinical and research MR data.
MRmap is a flexible cross-platform research tool that enables accurate mapping of relaxation times from various pulse sequences. The software allows researchers to optimize quantitative MR strategies in a manufacturer-independent fashion. The program and its source code were made available as open-source software on the internet.
- Source Image
- Magnetic Resonance System
- Quantitative Magnetic Resonance
- DICOM Viewer
- DICOM Header
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a complex imaging modality, which has gained widespread use in modern medicine. Signal intensity in conventional MR images is influenced by a multitude of physical phenomena. In particular, there are three time constants describing the behavior of the net magnetization vector M in an MR experiment: 1) the longitudinal or spin-lattice relaxation time T1, describing the recovery of the Mz component of M; 2) the transversal or spin-spin relaxation time T2, describing the decay of the Mxy component of M; and 3) T2*, which in contrast to T2 also includes the loss of phase coherence due to field inhomogeneities and susceptibility effects. The degree to which these time constants determine signal intensity in an MR image depend on the technical parameters that are used for image acquisition [1, 2]. In clinical MR imaging, all three time constants represent characteristic magnetic properties of a given tissue , and changes from their normal values can be used to identify pathological states of that tissue. Examples for recent research efforts include investigations into the relaxation behavior of human brain in patients with multiple sclerosis [4, 5], studies of T1 and T2* changes under pharmacological stress in coronary artery disease , quantification of iron overload of the heart and liver in thalassaemia major , and analysis of myocardial fibrosis in aortic regurgitation .
Due to the composite nature of the MR signal, it is not possible to acquire raw images with "pure", quantifiable T1 or T2 properties in a direct fashion. In fact, to obtain pure T1 or T2 information, it is necessary to acquire a set of raw images that use varying acquisition parameters, and to perform multi-parameter curve fitting analysis on this raw data based on the mathematical functions that describe the underlying physical processes . If this is done on a pixel-by-pixel basis, so called parametric "maps" can be created. These maps provide a visualization of the T1 or T2 properties in a quantitative fashion, since the signal intensity of each pixel in such a map directly reflects the relaxation time calculated (typically in milliseconds).
In the past, a number of image acquisition schemes have been developed to enable measurement and mapping of MR relaxation times. A recent offspring of these techniques is called modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) and opens the door for high-resolution T1 mapping in cardiac applications such as the assessment of heart muscle scarring in patients with heart attacks [9, 10]. From a post-processing point of view, most of these techniques have used proprietary software programs for map reconstruction. Where mapping procedures were embedded into standard software packages for image analysis, again only specific image data were processed, and there was rarely any information available about the actual processing algorithms used. So far, both the lack of easily accessible software tools and the uncertainty about the mode of action of "black-box" software packages have posed a significant obstacle for many non-computer-expert researchers in the medical field to study relaxation time changes in diseased tissues.
The aim of our project was to provide a simple, universal software tool that can be used on multiple computer platforms to create relaxation time maps from any image data acquired with multiple mapping schemes including MOLLI .
After a survey among MR scientists at two different MR centers (Franz-Volhard-Klinik, Berlin, Germany; Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, UK) who were asked to list desirable features of future MR mapping software, the following basic specifications were defined:
– Reading of DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) image data from different MR systems
– Image registration to correct for misregistration of source images
– T1 mapping from standard inversion recovery, conventional Look-Locker or TOMROP , and modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) data sets
– T2 and T2* mapping from single-echo and multi-echo pulse sequences
– Control over basic computing parameters
– Graphical illustration of fitting results
– Export of maps in DICOM format for post-processing with conventional MR software
– Export of maps in standard graphic formats for illustration purposes.
A high-level programming language including routines for handling of complex image data and providing the option to run programs with free runtime licenses on all major computer platforms was selected (IDL 7.0, ITT Visual Information Solutions, Boulder CO, USA) . A software tool named "MRmap" was created according to the specifications requested  (see Additional file 1). Maps are calculated pixel-by-pixel according to the selection of the user, if the type of source images is suitable for the selected technique. Validity checks include the number of source images, common field-of-views, and appropriate timing information within the DICOM headers.
The functionality of the software was tested for three different operating systems (Microsoft Windows XP pro, Apple OS X 10.5, and Fedora Linux 10) in different types of image data from multiple MR systems. Accuracy of the automated computation of relaxation times was assessed by comparing mean relaxation times of regions of interest (ROIs) from maps generated by MRmap to results from non-automated curve fitting (Prism 5, GraphPad software, La Jolla/Ca, USA) of corresponding ROIs of raw images from standardized image data sets of gadolinium-doped agarose gel phantoms with multiple T1 and T2 times (8 images per set, matrix 128 × 128, TI for IR, LL, and MOLLI: 100 to 1400 ms) acquired on a clinical 1.5 T MR system (Avanto, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany). Performance of the sofware was measured in the same data sets using a 2.5 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo processor. The readability of exported maps was assessed for the following standard MR software packages: a) Mass 6.0 (Medis Medical Imaging Systems, Leiden, Netherlands), b) CMR42 (Circle Cardiovascular Imaging Inc., Calgary, Canada), c) Osirix 3.3 (Antoine Rosset, Geneva, Switzerland). MRmap and its source code were made available as open-source software under the GNU General Public License .
Computation times [s] for test data sets.
T1 Inversion recovery
To our knowledge, MRmap is the first open-source software tool that enables parametric T1, T2, and T2* mapping of DICOM source images on a pixel-by-pixel basis from multiple MR systems in a flexible fashion.
Other than conventional solutions that are embedded into vendor-specific application packages, the computing routines used by MRmap are well documented (see Additional file 2). Thus, results can easily be verified and do not come from a "black box", which facilitates their use for research purposes. MRmap provides a whole set of mapping routines that covers the most popular pulse sequence schemes. Our tests show that the resulting maps of the underlying relaxation times achieve the same accuracy as (tedious) non-automated curve fitting does.
By nature, the choice of a high-level graphics language as a software environment causes longer computing times than code that is written in low-level languages such as C++. This is the case in MRmap as well, where some of the mapping procedures - depending on mapping type and resolution, parameters chosen, and computer system used - can exceed one minute. However, research analyses are usually performed off-line, and therefore speed is less critical than in clinical applications. Furthermore, the exclusion of non-relevant pixels by setting appropriate noise levels allows reducing computation times drastically (see Table 1).
Apart from pure mapping procedures, MRmap provides a manual registration tool that helps to optimize mapping results if the source data contains significant motion artifacts. Image registration is a prerequisite for use in cardiac applications, where breathing artifacts are particularly common. As a limitation, MRmap in its current version does not support non-rigid registration, which can be a problem in cases where arrhythmia causes severe mis-triggering of the cardiac cycle. The integrated DICOM viewer facilitates the exploration of the source data, e.g. if images from external sites are to be analyzed. In contrast to most conventional DICOM viewers, DICOM headers from both multiple images and multiple series are listed in a tabular fashion, enabling direct comparison of header data between different images or series.
As a limitation, MRmap does not support less commonly used mapping schemes such as varying flip angle approaches . These might be implemented in future versions of the software.
MRmap is a flexible open-source software tool for the creation of parametric maps of MR relaxation times. Manual registration of source images, visualization of fitting results and data export in multiple image formats are supported. The software might facilitate research activities in the field of quantitative MR tissue analysis.
Project name: MRmap
Project home page: http://sourceforge.net/projects/mrmap
Operating systems: platform independent
Program language: IDL 7.0
Other requirements: (free) IDL Virtual Machine 7.0 (or higher) ; X11 (on Mac OS X)
License: GNU General Public License (GPL) Restrictions to use by non-academic: MRmap is intended for research purposes only.
This work was supported by a Marie Curie Reintegration Grant for D.M. by The European Commission. The DICOM write routines are based on code from "DICOM_WRITER v0.21" by Bhautik Joshi (firstname.lastname@example.org).
- Kaldoudi E, Williams CR: Relaxation time measurements in NMR imgaging. Part I: Longitudinal relaxation time. Concepts in Magnetic Resonance. 1993, 5: 217-242. 10.1002/cmr.1820050303.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kingsley PB: Methods of measuring spin-lattice (T1) relaxation times: An annotated bibliography. Concepts in Magnetic Resonance. 1999, 11 (4): 243-276. 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0534(1999)11:4<243::AID-CMR5>3.0.CO;2-C.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bottomley PA, Foster TH, Argersinger RE, Pfeifer LM: A review of normal tissue hydrogen NMR relaxation times and relaxation mechanisms from 1-100 MHz: Dependence on tissue type, NMR frequency, temperature, species, excision, and age. Medical Physics. 1984, 11 (4): 425-448. 10.1118/1.595535.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vaithianathar L, Tench CR, Morgan PS, Lin X, Blumhardt LD: White matter T(1) relaxation time histograms and cerebral atrophy in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2002, 197 (12): 45-50. 10.1016/S0022-510X(02)00044-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Parry A, Clare S, Jenkinson M, Smith S, Palace J, Matthews PM: White matter and lesion T1 relaxation times increase in parallel and correlate with disability in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol. 2002, 249 (9): 1279-1286. 10.1007/s00415-002-0837-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wacker CM, Bock M, Hartlep AW, Beck G, van Kaick G, Ertl G, Bauer WR, Schad LR: Changes in myocardial oxygenation and perfusion under pharmacological stress with dipyridamole: assessment using T2* and T1 measurements. Magn Reson Med. 1999, 41 (4): 686-695. 10.1002/(SICI)1522-2594(199904)41:4<686::AID-MRM6>3.0.CO;2-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Anderson LJ, Holden S, Davis B, Prescott E, Charrier CC, Bunce NH, Firmin DN, Wonke B, Porter J, Walker JM, et al: Cardiovascular T2-star (T2*) magnetic resonance for the early diagnosis of myocardial iron overload. Eur Heart J. 2001, 22 (23): 2171-2179. 10.1053/euhj.2001.2822.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sparrow P, Messroghli DR, Reid S, Ridgway JP, Bainbridge G, Sivananthan MU: Myocardial T1 mapping for detection of left ventricular myocardial fibrosis in chronic aortic regurgitation: pilot study. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006, 187 (6): W630-635. 10.2214/AJR.05.1264.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Messroghli DR, Radjenovic A, Kozerke S, Higgins DM, Sivananthan MU, Ridgway JP: Modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) for high-resolution T1 mapping of the heart. Magn Reson Med. 2004, 52 (1): 141-146. 10.1002/mrm.20110.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Messroghli DR, Plein S, Higgins DM, Walters K, Jones TR, Ridgway JP, Sivananthan MU: Human Myocardium: Single-Breath-hold MR T1 Mapping with High Spatial Resolution--Reproducibility Study. Radiology. 2006, 238 (3): 1004-1012. 10.1148/radiol.2382041903.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Graumann R, Barfuß H, Hentschel D, Oppelt A: TOMROP: eine Sequenz zur Bestimmung der Längsrelaxationszeit T1 in der Kernspintomographie. electromedica. 1987, 55 (2): 67-72.Google Scholar
- IDL Virtual Machine from ITT Visual Information Solutions. [http://www.ittvis.com/Downloads.aspx]
- MRmap project website on sourceforge.net. [http://sourceforge.net/projects/mrmap]
- Nekolla S, Gneiting T, Syha J, Deichmann R, Haase A: T1 maps by K-space reduced snapshot-FLASH MRI. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1992, 16 (2): 327-332. 10.1097/00004728-199203000-00031.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deichmann R, Haase A: Quantification of T1 values by SNAPSHOT-FLASH NMR imaging. J Magn Reson. 1992, 96: 608-612.Google Scholar
- Sperber GO, Ericsson A, Hemmingsson A, Jung B, Thuomas KA: Improved formulae for signal amplitudes in repeated NMR sequences: applications in NMR imaging. Magn Reson Med. 1986, 3 (5): 685-698. 10.1002/mrm.1910030505.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ghugre NR, Enriquez CM, Coates TD, Nelson MD, Wood JC: Improved R2* measurements in myocardial iron overload. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2006, 23 (1): 9-16. 10.1002/jmri.20467.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Preibisch C, Deichmann R: Influence of RF spoiling on the stability and accuracy of T1 mapping based on spoiled FLASH with varying flip angles. Magn Reson Med. 2009, 61 (1): 125-135. 10.1002/mrm.21776.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2342/10/16/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.