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Table 1 Published studies describing the imaging features of extranodal lymphoma of muscle (listed chronologically)

From: Imaging features of skeletal muscle lymphoma: a case report and literature review

Literature General information US MRI CT PET/CT (N)
Author/year (Sex, N)/age Number of affected muscles (N) Boundary (N) Echogenicity (N) Vascularity (N) Boundary (N) T1W (N) T1W + Gd (N) T2W (N) STIR (N) Boundary (N) Plain (N) Contrast (N)
Metzler et al. [23] F/65 Multiple N/A Hypointense No enhancement Hypointense Hyperintense
Eustace et al. [34] (F, 2)/(67,68) Single Well-defined (1), N/A (1) Isointense Diffuse enhancement (1), N/A (1) Hyperintense Hyperintense (1), N/A (1)
Panicek et al. [30] (M, 2)/(68,77) Multiple (1), single (1) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Isodense to hypodense Moderate enhancement
Beggs [11] (M, 4; F, 2)/(31–76) Multiple (5), single (1) Ill- (3), well- (2) defined, N/A (1) Hypoechoic (4), fibroadipose septa and swollen muscle bundles (1), patchy distal acoustic enhancement (1), N/A (1) N/A Ill- (3), well- (2) defined, N/A(1) Minimally hyperintense (3), isointense (1), N/A (2) Heterogeneous (1), diffuse (1), patchy (1) enhancement, N/A (3) Hyperintense (4), N/A (2) Hyperintense (2), N/A (4) Ill- (1), well- (1) defined, N/A(4) Isodense Isodense (1), N/A (5)
Lee et al. [5] (M, 2; F, 3)/(15–80) Multiple (2), single (3) N/A Isointense N/A Hyperintense N/A N/A Isodense to hypodense (2), N/A (3) N/A Increased uptake (2), N/A (3)
Suresh et al. [15] (M, 14; F, 10)/(15–80) Multiple (12), single (12) Ill- (16) or well- (8) defined Hyperintense (15), isointense (8), N/A (1) Homogeneous or heterogeneous enhancement Hyperintense (1), isointense (21), N/A (2) Hyperintense (16), N/A (8)
Laffosse et al. [14] F/66 Single N/A Hypoechoic N/A N/A Isointense Enhancement N/A N/A
Wu et al. [35] M/14 Multiple N/A Hypoechoic N/A N/A N/A Enhancement Markedly hyperintense N/A Ill-defined N/A N/A
Driss et al. [20] M/8 Multiple N/A Hypointense N/A Hyperintense N/A N/A N/A N/A
Broski et al. [36] M/65 Multiple N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Increased uptake
Chun et al. [22] (M, 14; F, 6)/(5–90) Multiple (14), single (6) N/A Intermediate (11), hyperintense (9) Diffuse (13), peripheral band (4), marginal septal (2), enhancement, N/A (1) Isointense Hyperintense (5), isointense (8), N/A (7)
Gaiser et al. [37] M/10 Single Ill-defined N/A Vivid enhancement N/A N/A
Muralee Mohan et al. [26] M/55 Single Ill-defined Hypoechoic, muscle like texture Minimal N/A Isointense N/A Heterogeneously hyperintense Hyperintense Well-defined Isodense Homogeneous enhancement
Carroll et al. [18] (M, 2; F, 5)/(56–68) Multiple (2), single (5) Ill- (3) or well- (4) defined Iso- to slightly hyperintense Homogeneous enhancement Homogeneously or heterogeneously hyperintense N/A
Hongsakul et al. [38] F/45 Multiple Ill-defined Hypoechoic, fibroadipose septa and swollen muscle bundles N/A N/A Slightly hyperintense Inhomogeneous enhancement Slightly hyperintense N/A N/A Enlargement Enhancement
Surov [3] (M, 4; F, 6)/(45–75) Multiple (1), single (9) N/A Homogeneously hypointense N/A Hyperintense Hyperintense
Katsura et al. [33] F/52 Multiple N/A N/A Non-uniformly early enhancing, central necrosis Increased uptake
Zhang et al. [39] F/76 Multiple N/A Hypoechoic N/A N/A N/A Enhancement N/A N/A
Hatem et al. [32] M/70 Single Ill-defined Hypoechoic N/A Ill-defined N/A N/A N/A N/A Increased uptake
Elkourashy et al. [40] M/40 Multiple N/A Abnormal Heterogeneous enhancement N/A N/A
Burton et al. [41] M/17 Multiple N/A Isointense Diffuse enhancement Diffusely mildly hyperintense N/A
Spetsieris et al. [29] F/70 Multiple N/A Hypoechoic Increased N/A Hypointense Enhancement Hyperintense N/A N/A Isodense N/A
Martins et al. [42] M/76 Multiple Well-defined Isointense Peripheral enhancement Hyperintense Hyperintense Increased uptake
Binici et al. [43] F/41 Multiple Ill-defined Isointense N/A Hyperintense N/A
Present case/2019 M/70 Multiple Ill-defined Hypoechoic, muscle fibers Increased Ill-defined Minimally hyperintense N/A Hyperintense N/A Ill-defined Hypodense mild-moderate enhancement Increased uptake
  1. T1W T1-weighted sequence; T2W T2-weighted sequence; Gd gadolinium; STIR short-tau inversion recovery; US ultrasound; MRI magnetic resonance imaging; CT computed tomography; PET/CT positron emission tomography/computed tomography; N/A not available
  2. N refers to the number of patients