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Table 2 Characteristics on US in the training and testing set

From: Differential diagnosis between hepatic alveolar echinococcosis and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound

Imaging Features on US Training set (n = 80) Testing set (n = 40) P*
HAE(n = 36) ICC(n = 44) HAE(n = 24) ICC(n = 16)  
Conventional US
Location
  Right lobe 30 (83.3) 24 (54.5) 20 (83.3) 9 (56.3) 0.252
  Left lobe 6 (16.7) 20 (45.5) 4 (16.7) 7 (43.7) 0.393
Lesion size
   ≤ 5.0 cm 14 (38.9) 17 (38.6) 8 (33.3) 7 (43.7) 0.755
   > 5.0 cm 22 (61.1) 27 (61.4) 16 (66.7) 9 (56.3) 0.145
Echogenicity
  Hyper or Iso 5 (13.8) 3 (6.8) 5 (20.8) 4 (25.0) 1.000
  Mixed 25 (69.4) 14 (31.8) 18 (75.0) 5 (31.3) 0.271
  Hypo 6 (16.7) 27 (61.4) 1 (4.2) 7 (43.7) 1.000
Margin
  Clear 17 (47.2) 20 (45.5) 11 (45.8) 8 (50.0) 0.573
  Unclear 19 (52.8) 24 (54.5) 13 (54.2) 8 (50.0) 0.287
Bile duct dilatation 1 (2.8) 16 (36.4) 1 (4.2) 5 (31.3) 0.462
Pseudocystic appearance 9 (25.0) 1 (2.3) 5 (20.8) 0 (0) 1.000
Calcification 16 (44.4) 0 (0) 13 (54.2) 0 (0) NA
CEUS
Arterial phase
  Hyper- 23 (63.9) 35 (79.5) 16 (66.7) 15 (93.8) 0.370
  Iso- 5 (13.9) 8 (18.2) 5 (20.8) 1 (6.3) 0.141
  Hypo- or Non- 8 (22.2) 1 (2.3) 3 (12.5) 0 (0) 1.000
Enhancement pattern
  Regular rim 33 (91.7) 4 (9.0) 20 (8.3) 2 (12.5) 1.000
  Irregular rim 2 (5.6) 22 (50.0) 4 (16.7) 7 (43.8) 0.063
  Heterogeneous 1 (2.7) 9 (20.5) 0 (0) 5 (31.2) 1.000
  Homogeneous 0 (0) 9 (20.5) 0 (0) 2 (12.5) NA
Portal phase
  Hyper- 1 (2.8) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) NA
  Iso- 9 (25.0) 0 (0) 10 (41.7) 1 (6.3) 1.000
  Hypo- or Non- 26 (72.2) 44 (100) 14 (58.3) 15 (93.7) 0.3670
Late phase
  Hyper- 1 (2.8) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) NA
  Iso- 7 (19.4) 0 (0) 9 (37.5) 1 (6.3) 1.000
  Hypo- or Non- 28 (77.8) 44 (100) 15 (62.5) 15 (93.7) 0.380
Enhancement duration# 197.4 ± 138.2 23.7 ± 16.2 205.9 ± 137.6 19.9 ± 5.3  
Marked wash-out 10 (27.8) 32 (72.7) 5 (20.8) 12 (75.0) 0.745
  1. Note.---Unless otherwise indicated, data are number of nodules, with percentages in parentheses
  2. # Data are means± standard deviations
  3. *Statistical analysis using χ2 or Fisher’s exact test demonstrate differences between the training set and testing set. NA Not available
  4. HAE Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis; ICC Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; US Ultrasound; CEUS Contrast enhanced ultrasound