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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analysis using a cumulative logistic regression method to predict histologic upgrade to microinvasion and invasion

From: The role of MRI and clinicopathologic features in predicting the invasive component of biopsy-confirmed ductal carcinoma in situ

  Univariate analysis   Multivariate analysis  
  Odds ratio (95% CI) P value Adjusted Odds ratio (95% CI) P value
Age (old vs. young) 1.02 (1.00–1.05) 0.070   
Biopsy method (US-CNB vs. SVAB) 2.78 (1.28–6.01) 0.009   
Nuclear grade (grade 3 vs. grade 1–2) 7.51 (2.38–23.75) < 0.001   
Necrosis (present vs. absent) 1.74 (1.02–2.98) 0.044   
ER (absent vs. present) 2.97 (1.63–5.38) < 0.001   
PR (absent vs. present) 3.53 (2.02–6.17) < 0.001 2.40 (1.29–4.44) 0.006
HER2 (present vs. absent) 2.81 (1.62–4.87) < 0.001   
Ki-67 (high vs. low) 3.44 (1.98–6.00) < 0.001 2.42 (1.30–4.50) 0.005
Mammographic calcification (present vs. absent) 1.70 (0.96–3.02) 0.072   
BPE on MRI (minimal or mild vs. moderate or marked) 1.88 (1.00–3.55) 0.051   
MR type of lesion (mass or NME vs. non-visualization)
  Mass 8.81 (1.10–70.93) 0.041 8.84 (1.05–74.04) 0.045
NME 11.95 (1.50–95.20) 0.019 11.17 (1.35–92.36) 0.025
  1. CI confidence interval; US-CNB US-guided core needle biopsy; SVAB stereotactic vacuum-assisted biopsy; ER estrogen receptor; PR progesterone receptor; HER2 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; BPE background parenchymal enhancement; NME non-mass enhancement