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Table 1 Cardiac parameters and their evaluation by focus cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS) and Standard Echocardiogram (SE)

From: Focused cardiac ultrasound by unselected residents—the challenges

  FoCUS Standard Echocardiogram
LV EF (<40%a) Visually (no/yes), A4C, LAX Volume calculations using the biplane method of disks (modified Simpson’s rule) [17, 21, 22]
LV dilated
LV WMA Visually (no/yes), A4C, LAX, A2C
Pericardial effusion Calliper > 5 mm in end-diastole in any view. (no/yes)
Aortic regurgitationb Visual assessment of the jet area (no/yes) [22]. Predominantly by vena contracta measurements. Additionally, the pressure half time method was incorporated when grading AR. [1820]
Mitral regurgitationb
RV FAC (<30%) Visually (no/yes), A4C FAC in A4C [17]
RV dilated c Single plane area measurements in A4C [17]
RV WMA Visually (no/yes), A4C
Aortic dilation Calliper ≥ 4.0 cm, (no/yes)
LA dilatedc Visually (no/yes), A4C Biplane area-length method from A4C and LAX [17, 23]
  1. LV left ventricle; EF ejection fraction, WMA wall motion abnormalities, RV right ventricle, FAC fractional area change, LA left atrium, FoCUS focus cardiac ultrasound, SE standard echocardiogram, A4C apical 4-chamber view, LAX apical long axis view, A4C apical 2-chamber view, CW continuous wave Doppler, ASE American Society of Cardiology, AR aortic regurgitation
  2. aVisual estimate of LV systolic function on basis of EF being over or below 40% This arbitrarily chosen level was in accordance with current heart failure guidelines [13]
  3. bModerate or severe
  4. cDilated if more than half the area as compared to that of the LV