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Table 4 Published studies on the frequency of adverse reactions at infusion of iotroxate at intravenous cholangiography. Included are all studies with at least 100 patients using an infusion time of at least 30 min. The severity of the reactions is graded as reported. The number in superscript denotes the corresponding reference.

From: Three-dimensional drip infusion CT cholangiography in patients with suspected obstructive biliary disease: a retrospective analysis of feasibility and adverse reaction to contrast material.

  No. of Patients Total Minor Intermediate Severe Fatal
Nilsson 198711 1 446 49 (3.4%) 41 (2.9%) 5 (0.35%) 3 (0.21%) 0
Daly 198731 286 4 (1.4%) 4 (1.4%) 0 0 0
Joyce 199132 100 2 (2.0%) 2 (2.0%) 0 0 0
Wigmore 199333 100 0 0 0 0 0
Patel 199334 113 3 (2.7%) 3 (2.7%) 0 0 0
Grunshaw 199335 137 4 (2.9%) 3 (2.2%) 1 (0.7%) 0 0
ASacharias 199536 1 061 11 (1.0%)   11 A (1.0%) 0 0
Kwon 199816 440 2 (0.5%) 2 (0.5%) 0 0 0
Kitami 200637 220 3 (1.4%) 3 (1.5%) 0 0 0
Okada 200517 432 4 (0.9% 4 (0.9%) 0 0 0
Hirao 200022 120 2 (1.7%) 2 (1.7%) 0 0 0
BTakamatsu 200438 132 1 (0.8%) 1 (0.8%) 0 0 0
Total 4587 85 65 17 3 0
Frequency (95% confidence limits)   1.9% (1.5%–2.2%) 1.4% (1.1%–1.8% 0.4% (0.2%–0.5%) 0.1% (0–0.1%) 0
  1. ANo difference was made between minor and intermediate adverse events.
  2. B The infusion time was 25–30 min. The number of complications in the article was reported by personal communication.