Particle tracing and Volume Tracking visualizations of LV filling in a patient with apical aneurysm. Particle tracing (A-C) and Volume Tracking (D-F) visualizations of LV filling in a patient with a large LV apical aneurysm, which appeared after a major anterior infarction. See Additional File 4: VT-Patient.mpg for an animated version. In each image, an anatomical 4-chamber Cine image is shown for orientation. The 4-chamber image is transparent to show flow behind the plane. Time is counted from the start of ventricular systole. In the particle trace images in panels A-C, particles are released every 20 milliseconds at the level of the white, dotted line (MV). In panel A, at the start of diastole, particles are shown at their starting position just above the dotted white line. In panel B, during early filling, the traces show the flow from the atrium into the ventricle. In panel C, at mid-diastole, the particles have moved further into the ventricle and entered a twisting pattern. Panels D-F show a Volume Tracking visualization corresponding to the particle trace visualization in panels A-C. In panel D, at the start of diastole, a Volume Tracking plane can be seen at the level of the mitral valve just before ventricular diastole. In panel E, during early filling, the plane has deformed and shows the blood flowing into the ventricle. In panel F, in mid-diastole, the blood has moved further into the ventricle. The inflow pattern is distinctly different from the pattern observed in the healthy volunteer in Figure 2. LV = left ventricle, RV = right ventricle, LA = left atrium, RA = right atrium, MV = mitral valve, dotted line = approximate location of mitral valve, color = velocity from 0 (blue) to 1 m/s (red).