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Table 3 Observer agreement: kappa statistics (95% confidence intervals)

From: Observer variation in chest radiography of acute lower respiratory infections in children: a systematic review

Radiographic features Davies 1996[10] Simpson 1974[14] Coakley 1996[8] Kramer 1992[12] Crain 1991[9] McCarthy 1981[15]
Inter-observer variation       
Consolidation 0.79      
Pneumonia     0.46 (0.34–0.58) 0.47 (0.35–0.60)   
Collapse/consolidation   0.83 (0.72–0.94)     
Collapse/atelectasis 0.78      
Hyperinflation/air trapping 0.83 0.78 (0.67–0.89)     
Peribronchial/ bronchial wall thickening 0.55 0.55 (0.44–0.66) 0.43 (0.25–0.61)    
Perihilar linear opacities 0.82      
Abnormal      0.61 (0.48–0.74)  
Bacterial vs. viral etiology       0.27–0.38
Intra-observer variation       
Consolidation 0.91      
Collapse/atelectasis 0.86      
Hyperinflation/air trapping 0.85      
Peribronchial /bronchial wall thickening 0.76      
Perihilar linear opacities 0.87      
  1. aTwo observer pairs